Make A Difference With PCB Materials

There are PCB designers and fabricators who find choosing the appropriate materials for the construction of a printed circuit board unimportant. For those familiar with design issues, choosing the appropriate materials for a printed circuit board (PCB) makes the difference between a high performing PCB and an inferior one. Who would want a poor-performing creation? You create to bring out the “wow” factor in your creation. In this case, the printed circuit board for a design idea.

Careful consideration is critical in choosing the materials for a circuit board. Hasty decisions on choice of PCB materials can cause system failures at the most unexpected time. Knowledge of the key features of PCB materials helps at the design level and in the lifetime use of the system.

The standard requirements for PCB materials are high reliability for end-use application and consistency in performance. Most PCB sources can provide various materials you need in PCB construction like the ones we offer here at A match between the circuit materials and the requirement of applications rests on obtaining the right combination of characteristics which results to excellent performance at a low cost.

Two factors in the selection of PCB materials

The success and reward of having the right combination of materials for PCB rest on the following: suitability for circuit fabrication, and compatibility with application requirements.

Fabrication issues

The fabrication of a printed circuit board, particularly in a multi-layered board, present challenges. Designers and fabricators can have a range of choice for materials used in bonding layers to form a multilayer PCB. But, materials differ in dissipation factor, dielectric constant, and processing temperatures. A challenge which one may encounter is the bonding of dissimilar materials that are incompatible. A match of dissimilar materials may lead to problems with reliability and may not withstand the thermal stress during PCB assembly.


Another challenge one is likely to encounter with PCB material is its capacity to withstand thermal stress during assembly processing. There are materials which may have good electrical performance but contain features that are not strong enough to withstand the thermal stress of PCB assembly. A combination of the right materials could produce good multilayer PCB construction. This kind of construction is known as the hybrid multilayer PCB which are cost-effective but best performing.

There are various materials one can choose based on fabrication issues:

• Ceramic-filled hydrocarbon material with woven glass

• Ceramic-filled PTFE with woven glass

• Micro fiber glass PTFE

The materials mentioned have their specific use, benefits and drawbacks. Your material source has guides for specifications and use. You can find good and reliable sources for various materials that you can combine to make a good match. One source is our own site

End-use application

End-use applications, like fabrication issues, pose several concerns that affect PCB construction. Here again, guides are given by reliable PCB sources for the best selection of materials based on end-use application. The performance parameters considered would include: dissipation factor (Df), dielectric constant (Dk), CTE, and thermal conductivity. There are reliable tests done to determine dielectric losses in terms of design, process, and tolerance values.

Another performance parameter of concern based on end-use application is the conductor losses. The conductor losses are important in comparing circuit materials. The conducted losses may happen due to the circuit design, configuration, thickness of conductive metals, and surface roughness of copper conductor layers.

PCB Assembly

Thermal conductivity is another cause for end-use application concern. Thermal conductivity is the capacity for the heat to move through a circuit material. This parameter is crucial for high-power applications which need a high amount of heat to dissipate. If the thermal conductivity is found mismatched or insufficient, this can improve with the use of an appropriate material, such as the ceramic-filled high-frequency materials. This type of material can help resolve many thermal management concerns.

One parameter that is of concern, particularly for high-frequency applications, is the amount of moisture absorption of the PCB material. High humidity in the environment could cause the to Dk losses that impact on PCB performance. There are, however, materials built to resist and reduce moisture absorption to less than 1%.

The effect of a poor choice of materials for PCB construction can affect the PCB performance to a great extent. In selecting the right material for the PCB construction, consider the issues you will encounter in the process of assembly and pick the materials which offer the best trade offs. If you are looking for an expert advice regarding PCB, then look no further than You can expect us to give you expert advices and consultation at low prices.

Pcb fabrication

Sources of PCB materials provide charts that you can refer to in comparing properties of high-frequency materials. The chart can help simplify your choices in getting the best trade offs between fabrication benefits and excellent performance.

The choice of PCB materials is a thing of deep concern for a serious fabricator. The quality of the material you use for the PCB fabricator can either prove the superior capability of your PCB design or demonstrate poor performance. With a poor performing PCB, you may have to redesign and go through the whole process which translates into time lost and increased cost. Luckily, there is now, and we are here to ensure that your PCB design, assembly and fabrication project will turn out to be a huge success.

The Origin Of Custom Challenge Coins

Challenge Coins 4 Less has been producing custom challenge coins for years. Throughout the years that we have dedicated to produce high-quality customized coins, we’ve witnessed the importance of our coins to every organization.

You might be wondering why custom challenge coins are used today. It has been used to give recognition to people who have done something exceptional. You might even have received something like this since these coins are given as awards or tokens of appreciation, or even as a form of identification of members who belong to a certain organization.

custom challenge coins

It had been widely used in politics and even in Hollywood. The use of these coins are even more prominent in every centralized organization that hierarchically functions, some of these are police departments, fire station department, military, and even in corporations.

The History Of Custom Challenge Coins :

The history of its purpose and existence is not clear yet. However, there are some stories that tell how custom challenge coins have begun. In every story you would notice that challenge coins have already been used as tokens for recognition of as symbols to identify the members of certain organization.

There are several stories that tell how these coins have played its part in history. The earliest among these stories was dated back during the ancient times when the Roman soldiers were given customized coins as form of recondition for their effort and valor.

The Roman soldiers would go into the battle and receive their salary once they came back from the battle. Aside from the salary, they were given customized coins that bore their legion’s insignia.

Military Coins

These customized coins are can be used to purchase anything they want. However, the Roman soldiers have chosen to keep their coins as souvenirs instead of using them to buy the things they want.

Another story, which is the most popular one, has dated back during the World War II. During that time, several young Americans volunteered to serve as soldiers to fight the war against Germans, along with their French ally. They were sent to France to do this mission.

In one squadron, there was a captain who was rich. He ordered several customized coins to give his men. Among these men was a young pilot. The young pilot kept his coin inside a leather pouch that was dangling around his neck.

Custom CoinsOne day, the young pilot was forced to land close to the German border due to his aircraft damage. Because of this, the Germans captured him and stripped everything that can verify his identity except the pouch that was hanging around his neck. The Germans did it to discourage the young pilot to escape.

However, this didn’t stop the young pilot from escaping. One night he escaped by taking advantage of the bombardment that was happening during that time. However, he left everything that could verify his identity.

During his escape, he was hiding from his enemies by disguising himself like a civilian. He did this until he reached the French outpost where he was captured again.

custom military coinsThe French soldiers didn’t recognize his accent. The young pilot had nothing that could prove his identity. Because of this, the French decided to execute him. Out of desperation, the young soldier reached for his coin inside his leather pouch and gave it to the French soldiers. The French soldiers recognized the insignia on the coin. Recognizing it as a symbol of an ally, they decided to postpone the young pilot’s execution. This gave them enough time to verify the identity of the young pilot, which was indeed their ally. Because of this mistake, the French soldiers gave him a bottle of wine.

Your challenge coins have gone a long way throughout the history. Because of this, these have been used for giving recognitions and awards for the members of certain organization. Our company is proud that we’re taking part of its legacy, by producing high-quality custom challenge coins that will last for a long time.

Custom Challenge Coins bear a unique unit or team symbol or motto which identifies the group. Click here you can get best options that coins make them unique.

Motivational Speaker: A Different Type of Entertainment

Nick Vujicic, Shiv Keera, Garrison Wynn and Jim Rohm, these are just a few names that come into mind upon hear the words “motivational speaker”. Their names are known worldwide and people look up to them like how they admire their own parents. In other words, they’ve become celebrities in their own right.

speakerA motivational speaker or an inspirational speaker is someone who makes it his profession to go out and motivate others., here are many motivational speakers for different topics and issues, but here are some that stand out above the rest.

Motivational speakers go in front of an audience for the sole purpose of inspiring them, to spark their hopes and make them believe that things can go in a different direction. They can help others and change lives by using the most powerful weapon there is, words.

The combination of the right things to say, the right knowledge, experience, and pure confidence make up the anatomy of a great speaker. People flock to different venues just to hear their speeches and go home satisfied with their minds full of learning or hearts overflowing with hope.

Being a speaker is not an easy task; this cannot be learned overnight. Experiencing and knowing what you are talking about by heart is the key. There are only a few people who can go in front of a crowd and pour their hearts out while being convincing at the same time. It is an art that is quite unexplainable. Of course, others would say that it is easy and that all you need to do is memorize but it’s easy to know if the speaker is really knowledgeable by hearing the tone in his voice.

People can easily be convinced with what they are hearing if they feel the sincerity and passion of the speaker. You need to combine serious topics with loads of elements to motivate others and combine it with a little bit of humor to keep everyone on the edge of their seats. An experienced speaker can only exhibit this and only a few can deliver life-changing speeches.

For some, listening to a motivational speaker is just a form of entertainment, an excuse to kill time by watching their talks and videos online. They say that it is one of those jobs in entertainment. But others just consider it as something ordinary by playing video after video and half-heartedly soaking up the lessons being shared. People learn from these motivational speakers without even knowing what they really want to learn about. Some of choose talks or videos pertaining to a certain skill that they would like to learn more about, but in the end they gather more ideas than they expect.

It is like ordering a pasta dish expecting a plate of noodles and sauce but you receive an intricate plating of pasta with bread and butter on the side. Just like in talks, people get more than what they normally expect. There are some speakers who are such experts in their chosen niche that they’re able to provide training in the most technical matters, such in marketing or SEO.

Still, sometimes, hearing such informative speeches can motivate people to become hard workers, encouraging them to do better in things that they’re actually already good at. Sometimes just by merely listening to these speakers’ dialogs and by watching them deliver their prepared talks, individuals get lessons that they never really expected.

Being a motivational speaker as a form of a profession has been exhibited in some movies like Anger Management and Love Happens, where they show the character as someone who makes an impact in someone’s life. Even if it is a profession that is getting popular, it can still be considered as something exceptional and truly gratifying. That is a reward of being a speaker; you work and help others achieve something better in return.

Motivational SpeakerSome listeners even claim of having life-changing revelations and being brought to greater heights after they listen to speeches. What does it take to experience this after listening to someone? Does it have to come from the listener or does the eye-opening experience mainly come from the speaker? How can you be moved by something that someone else told you about?

When attending speeches, watching videos, or listening to lectures, always clear your head before it starts. Put aside anything that you are thinking about and let your mind absorb all the learning that the moment has to offer. Embrace what you are being taught but also be mindful of what you need to believe in.

There are some motivational speakers who focus on sharing stories of optimism and love, while others lecture on the things that people need to learn in order to make their lives or careers better. In any situation, a good motivational speaker helps others move forward. They inspire, challenge, help, motivate, and encourage others to live a better life.

Choosing a Funeral Homes

A Funeral is the last thing that we can give our loved one who passed away. It is our wayof honoring their memory and giving them the respect that they deserve. In doing so, we need to have the right services and these can only be attained by carefully choosing among the many funeral homesavailable – in other words, it’s vital to pick the right one. Here are some questions that will guide you in your search:

 Are the Staff Accommodating?

FuneralA bereaved family can be additionally comforted by personnel who understand two things – what the family’s going through and what services they need to provide. They are the persons who sincerely assist in everything we need to do during thesetough times, bearing with us in moments of emotional weakness and derangement.

Are the Service they offer Complete and of High Quality?

From the preparation of the body for the wake to the amenities that shall be available until the burial or cremation, services and informationmust be accessible to the family. An option on the size and quality of the viewing room should be present. What are their ways of documenting the guests that came to mourn with the family? Do they conduct a special tribute for the person who died? When providing burials, do they ensure that transport remains smooth? Is the Funeral Home affiliated with any burial garden to facilitate interment?Is a crematorium available in case the family opts for it?

What other additional services do they offer?

A wide variety of additional related services isapplicable nowadays. Because of this electronic age, most funeral homes already have an online viewing. So, family members and friends can still spend precious time with each other, even with those who won’t be able to come personally. Some have websites that are mobileready so that others can check for recent obituaries and other information that they might need such as names, addresses, and contact numbers of those grieving. Such sites may also be linked with other sites thatallow visitors to express condolences by sending flowers, cards, and gifts .Also, others already provide post- funeral services such as grief support programs, where the family can have counseling or reading materials from notable grief counselors.

Are they able and willing to work out last minute changes?

Not everything that was planned from the beginning of the arrangement may work. Some unexpected circumstance may pop up at the middle of the event. For example, family members may opt to come home and it may entail an extension of services. It’s also possible that the family requests a specialportion during the burial ceremony. So, the staff should be much more willing to assist the family.

Is the price right?

The next question that we will have in our mindsis – how much will all of these cost? Well, there may be a general costfor the caskets and basic services that will be chosen by the family. Additional premiums for other inclusions and upgrading may just be coordinated. Some funeral homes offer affordable deals, while others may offer expensive but exquisite packages. So it is indeed necessary to have a clear estimate of the cost, in relation to the things that can be provided – from the wakeuntil the burial or cremation.

Just remember that the one you pick among the many funeral homesallows youto mourn appropriately for the loss of your loved one. Your choice is important for your recovery and acceptance. After all the visitors and guests have gone,these the funeral home provides the peace, comfort, and satisfaction your heart and soulneed.

funeral serviceA Funeral is the last thing that we can give our loved one who passed away. The right services and these can only be attained by carefully choosing among the many funeral homesavailable.

Tips for Buying Golf Shoes

Buying the right pair of golf shoes is not as difficult or easy as some people would think. The number of different shoes to choose from is so high that finding the right one will definitely require some effort.

Back in the old times people didn’t really give any sort of care when it came to the kind of shoes that they wore to the green. As far as they were concerned, they only needed to wear a pair that they found themselves comfortable with. Things have changed since then. Golf is more of a sport than a game and golfers look for any way that can help improve their game.

Learning how to buy the right pair of shoes means knowing what to do and what to avoid. Here are a few tips that can help put people on the right path to buy the right pair of golf shoes.

Being too price conscious

golfThis is a mistake that a lot of people tend to make. Most adults should be aware that price, though an important factor, is not and should not be the be all and end all of the decision making process.

There are golfers who think that all shoes are the same. Because of this, they feel that the cheapest pair of shoes is the best one since they offer the best value for their money. The opposite is also true. Some prefer to buy the most expensive thing that they can lay their eyes on. These people work under the belief that price is reflective of the product’s quality.

People need to think about the price relative to the value. If the product doesn’t really sit at the top then it doesn’t really deserve a high asking price. If it’s cheap then there’s a good reason why it’s priced that way.

Not getting the fit right

This is a problem that people seem to underestimate. Few people know the real value of getting a great pair of golf shoes that fit properly. In fact, getting the fit right is one of the most important things that people need to do.

The first sign that the fit is right is that it’s comfortable. The heel should be a fit cozily against the rear of the shoe. If the shoe feels too tight when wearing it for the first time then it’s normal. Most shoes tend to have a tight fit in the beginning. Overtime however, this issue will disappear as the shoe begins to loosen up for the owner.

Overlooking other options

A lot of shoppers keep on forgetting to look at all available options. There are a lot of golf equipment and apparel makers. Naming them all would take too much time, effort, and space. The point here is that consumers should avoid restricting or confining themselves to a single brand or model of shoes.

Try to survey the store and see what other options are available. Some shoes might not be as good as the others, but they might make up for it by having a lower asking price. Buyers should gather several pairs of shoes and compare them to see which one is the best one for their needs.

Try them out

Golf shops, at least some of those near golf ranges, will be more than willing to allow their customers to give their shoes a few swings. Ask the sales representative if they allow their customers to try out the pair by having a few swings at the nearby driving range if it is close to one. There’s no real better way to test a pair of golf shoes than to have a couple of swings.

Earning Big with Commercial Real Estate

Commercial real estate tends to take a backseat when in a discussion among a group of newbie investors. However, for seasoned investors, commercial real estate business is the safest of all investments.

If you intend to get into commercial real estate business but don’t have any idea on how to start, then here’s a guide we’ve prepared for first-timers like you.

Defining Commercial Real Estate

Commercial Real EstateCommercial real estate refers to real properties intended but not limited to commercial, industrial, educational or medical purposes. It can also include a property used for dwelling but with four or more units.

Investing in real estate can be a bit tricky. You need to do some proper researching before acquiring a commercial real estate to be able to evaluate property its capability for earn you a good return on your investment.

A good research and proper evaluation on a commercial property will help you determine the actual and future value. This can lead you to a tremendous profit later.

Reasons why Residential Property Investors Move on to Commercial Estate Investing

Investors of residential properties gradually level up to commercial real estate when they have more than enough of residential units in their portfolio.

For some good reasons, real estate investors who usually start with selling residential properties find commercial properties more profitable than what they have in their portfolios.

Easy to Manage

Once your portfolio expands to a sizeable quantity, you will find it hard to manage your investment if the majority is tied up to residential properties. If you have more than $20 million worth of residential properties, imagine how many homes and tenants you are going to manage while running your business. On the other hand, this same value will relatively carry less number of commercial properties, therefore, lesser people and properties to manage and supervise.

Diverse Rewards and Risks

Commercial properties include offices, retail shops, a block of shops, warehouse, medical centers, condominiums, health clubs, sports facilities, and much more. Its wide diversity entails varied rewards and risks for each type.

High Yield on Investment

The return on Investment in commercial real estate business is comparatively much higher that residential property business. In a commercial real estate, you can derive your income from rental and appreciation when the property is bought. Because lease contracts are usually long-term and more secured that in residences, the income is more stable and easy to handle.

It is common to have a 10 percent net return for a commercial real estate investment and 7-9 percent for a prime property. The value of the commercial estate is determined by the quality of the rental contract. The value, in general, is determined by the length of the lease contract and quality of tenant.

The value of the commercial property can subsequently drop when there is a vacancy. Some investors even sold their commercial properties at half the price if there is unusual difficulty in encouraging tenants to lease.

Pitfalls in Commercial Property Investment

InvestmentSo far, what proves to be risky in commercial real estate is looking for a new tenant when there is a vacancy. Each tenant has a different need in terms of size, proximity, payment capacity, and use. It is often difficult to find the right tenant.

Due to some reasons, it is also hard to find a buyer for a commercial property. The higher the price, the lesser numbers of buyers for it, not unless some factors can eventually turn out on your favor. An example of this is the construction of a major infrastructure development in the area. In the event that Walt Disney will construct the biggest entertainment center in your place, this is sure to bring flocks of customers in the area where your property is located.

A commercial real estate investment can be less liquid than other investments due to the fact that there are few players in the market. Where there are more potential buyers for residential properties, commercial properties have only a few of them.

Rarely can you sell a commercial real estate property on replacement value. They are generally sold on capitalization rates. This is why it is possible to buy a poorly rented commercial building way far below its market value.

You can also choose to increase the value of your commercial real estate by simply raising the rents while reviewing the rents or renegotiating the terms of a lease contract which is apt for renewal.

Given the proper knowledge in investing, commercial real estate business can, therefore, be more profitable while knowledge is the biggest leverage you can have in amassing wealth.

Author Bio:
If you are looking for best real estate investment planning visit are the primary spot for all your real estate needs. Whether its private, business, purchase, lease or offer we can help. We will match you with the best organization and dealer to help you meet your objectives.

The HCG Diet

People seldom think about the nutritional value of the foods they put into their mouths. Typically, the taste of the food is all that matters. Given what the food industry has done to make treats plentiful and tempting, it’s no wonder that so many of us end up fat! It can become a vicious cycle of eating, followed by looking for ways to burn off the resulting, unsightly fat. One weight-loss solution that has caught the attention of dieters everywhere is called the HCG diet.

HCG-Diet-DropsHCG is a hormone–human chorionic gonadotropin–that can be taken in the form of drops, sprays, tablets, or injections. This hormone is produced during pregnancy, and can be found in plentiful supply in the placenta. It’s one of the hormones used to detect pregnancies, in fact, because it can be detected at around eleven days after conception. What the hormone does is that it provides a fetus with access to a mother’s fat supplies, allowing it to draw upon her stores energy and use it for its own growth needs. Dr. Albert Simeons, a British scientist working in the 1950s, made popular the concept that this hormone could also be harnessed to facilitate weight loss in adult humans. The idea is simple: since HCG allows embryos to more efficiently burn its mother’s fats stores, the same hormone could help adults burn through their own fat stores more efficiently, too.

If you caught the reference to injections, above, don’t worry! HCG comes in tablet and liquid drop forms, too. Aside from that, people who wish to try the HCG diet must commit to following a twenty-three to forty-day protocol. As with any diet program, there are rules about what one can and cannot eat while on the diet. Along with the HCG itself, success with this diet requires that one limit the number of calories taken in. First, a dieter gets to load up on food. (A great way to start, don’t you think?) The first two days of the diet plan call for the build-up of fat stores. This is done by eating lots and lots of high-fat and high-calorie foods. After that–especially for those who have opted for the forty-day plan–the next thirty-eight days will require no more than 500 calories per day. The maintenance phase comes next, which will last for three weeks. During that time, the HCG dieter may not eat sugars or starchy foods. Also, during the entire diet, one must keep up with the recommended daily doses of the HCG itself.